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Table of Contents: Diversity in American higher education :

The Encyclopedia of Higher Education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sanlo, R.. Stahlberg and S. Weinberg Eds. The Accidental Educator. Marshall Ed. Stories of Inspiration, Vol. In Johnson, R. Birkdale Publishers. Invited submission. Lavender Graduation. In John Hawley Ed. Bourdon, T. March, Transgender Issues on Campus. Invited article. Spotlight on Campus Life, II 1. Speaking Out: What is Lavender Graduation?

Baez, J. Pepper Eds. New York: Random House, Inc. February, Magna Publications. University of Maryland, College Park. National Coming out Day. In James T. Sears Ed. Sanlo R. Zemsky, B. Sanlo ed.

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On Campus With Women, 34 3. American Association of Colleges and Universieies. Haworth Press. Rothblum Eds. Brown, Ed. Los Angeles: Alyson Publications. Flowers Ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers. Center X Forum, 3 2. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education. Haworth Press, pp. Journal of College Student Development, 45 3. In Ana M. Renn Eds. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Kissen Ed. Eyermann, T.

Sanlo, S. Schoenberg September 5, Between the Lines. Detroit, MI. Journal of College Student Development 42 2 , pp. November 5, Journal of College Student Development, 41 5 , pp. Journal of College Student Development. Journal of College Student Development, 41 6. The Community Psychologist, 32 2. Lesbian, Bisexual, and Questioning Women on Campus. New York: Garland Press. Barnett, D. The Lavender Web. Sanlo, Ed.

UCLA Today, 19 5. Celebrate Your Sexual Orientation! Brimner Ed. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc. Family Matters, 3 3. University of Michigan Student Affairs, p. This frame supports the two-way model of knowledge sharing, but is primarily enacted through teaching and learning, namely service-learning. These institutions view their relationships with their regions and municipalities as symbiotic. Service-learning programs and community-based scholarship are common practices at these institutions. They tend to be among the most prestigious American universities in international rankings due to their research reputation and funding.

They are likely to describe their work as addressing large societal problems such as climate change and world hunger. We suggest that path dependence theory is instructive in understanding this process. Briefly summarized, path dependence refers to the notion that a sequence of historical events shape, and even limit, the path an organization may take in the present or future. Organizations assume various paths as a result of positive feedback and accumulated advantage over time. As briefly summarized in the introduction, institutional founders played a critical role in creating and nourishing identities of U.

Likewise, many regional public universities have their roots in the normal school or teacher training movement. On the other hand, cosmopolitan faculty are typically employed at major research universities, are more loyal to their discipline than their home institution, and are visible nationally and internationally. For example, past research suggests that faculty at regional public universities e.

Similarly, teaching excellence is highly valued at liberal arts institutions, and thus is firmly connected to the civic learning frame. Similarly, market forces influence institutional paths as they relate to image, stakeholder values, and resources. Thus, they are prone to remain on these paths through accumulative advantage and positive reinforcement in the U.

Thus, the assumption is that institutional structures condition university-chosen strategies, even if they do not determine them. In all three cases, historical precedents limit adoption of strong engagement identities in each of the frames. The Venn diagram depicted in Figure 1 illustrates the overlapping nature of these frames. Specifically, there is evidence that U. Unlike American research universities, they primarily serve place-bound students and lack the prestige and research infrastructure to build robust research portfolios or endowments Kelderman, This study found evidence that regional institutions rely on their community revitalization identities as a means to increase their state funding.

The authors explained that declining state support for higher education in the s prompted PSU to distinguish itself from other institutions. They, too, rely on their engagement identity as a strategic tool to attract resources, but in nuanced ways. This is seen in state and federal level strategies to secure appropriations and grant support. For example, in , the University of California System — a system of 10 premier research universities — launched a major branding, marketing, and public relations campaign emphasizing public impact themes.

In this respect, they differ from institutions that would primarily view themselves within the community revitalization and civic learning frames. Importantly, the UC example reveals that imaging around research university scholarship often remains unidirectional.

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Structured summary

UC experts featured in the campaign example are addressing the important issue of alleviating paralysis, which may or may not have an engaged component that reflects partnership and reciprocity. Engaged scholarship has been touted as a key mechanism by which research universities can compete on this criterion. This identity attracts federal dollars to an institution while updating its long-standing emphasis on scholarship. Such colleges are as diverse — or even more so — than their counterparts in the public sector.

While some are well known by their prestige, endowments, high tuition, and large number of highly qualified applicants, the majority are less prestigious, have difficulty attracting high quality students, and have modest endowments. Across the sector, private colleges are experiencing stress brought on by rising prices and competition from new markets Lapovsky, A public image of engagement has become a strategic asset in recruiting students to these and other U. Colleges and universities seem aware of this, increasingly projecting images of themselves in the context of vibrant community partnerships Dempsey, Specifically prioritizing civic learning, the university grew its Center for Public Service, increased and enhanced public service requirements for graduation, and launched the Center for Engaged Learning and Teaching.

Path dependence suggests that institutions are ultimately constrained in their paths by past decisions. Our analysis suggests that institutions accentuate their long-term civic identities in ways that support their own survival. In this way, engagement and identity help explain both continuity and change in higher education, constructs that Stensaker described as the dominant ways to categorize organizational identity literature. In this article, we posited that path dependence is useful in understanding how institutions maintain stability and initiate change as it relates to the emerging national focus on public engagement in higher education.

Accordingly, they gravitate to various forms of engagement practice that are compatible with their long-standing institutional identities. In an era of scarce resources, institutions leverage these identities to bolster public and private financial support, recruit students, accentuate their brand, and strengthen their overall value proposition. Past studies of corporate image explore public expectations of a good company and how a company would like to be perceived, suggesting a symmetrical symbolic relationship.

Engagement is not strictly a U. To what extent might these frames be similar or different outside the U. International studies might explore engagement levers and challenges as they differ across individualistic and collectivist cultures. Other studies might focus on how unique understandings of higher education globally impact how engagement is understood in a worldwide context. Still other studies could explore how external forces driving engagement agendas e. Knowledge from these studies could inform cross-cultural collaboration that focuses on solving global problems.

Albert S. Altbach P. Ashforth B. Birnbaum R. Bloomfield V. Bowen H. Boyer E. Boyte H. Chaffee E. Clark B. Cohen A. Cowen S. Cunningham M.


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Dempsey S. Duderstadt J. Dyer T. Ehrlich T. Ewell P. Fiol C. Fitzgerald H. Furco A. Gioia D. Glassick C. Glynn M. Graf L. Hartley M. Hatch M. Hoeveler J. Holland B. Kelderman E. Langseth M. Lapovsky L. Lazerson M. Levine A. Lynton E. Markin K. Marquis C. McGuinness A. Moore T. Morphew C.

A Higher Education Moment: Keeping Campuses Open to Diversity of Ideas

Newman F.